Water is an essential element for every being present on this earth. The body itself is made of 70% water, and the need to stay hydrated is of utter importance for each one of us. So when it comes to the water that we drink, we all want fresh and clean water for ourselves. To make sure that the water that we and our children drink is pure, it is best to use a water purification system.
The water purification system ensures that your water is free from all kinds of toxic substances and impurities. Also, having a water purification system helps keep the water free of unwanted odors and raises the quality of your water.
In this article, we will study in detail the water filtering system, its several benefits, types and most importantly, how to make a water purification filter yourself. So let us go ahead and start exploring the water purification filter.
What Exactly is a Water Purification Filtration System?
To comprehend in simple terms, a water purification filter system helps in the decontamination of water by performing various chemical, biological, and physical processes on the water. There are numerous benefits to using a water filter in your home. Water is a significant source through which a variety of diseases and infections enter our bodies, so it is of prime importance for a person to take care of the water that they are drinking.
A water purification system is a machine, through which the water is allowed to transfer through a series of processes that helps in removing the impurities from the water and making it clean to drink. Different water purifiers consist of various purification mechanisms. Some include biological filters that help in removing the unwanted particles from the water. Some water filters have electrodes present in them and use electricity as a medium to clean the water.
Filtered water is a must for everyone. It is estimated that the risk of gastrointestinal disease gets reduced by 32% when we drink filtered water. It also helps in improving the immune system of a person, especially the kids whose immune systems are currently developing. Other than that, filtered water helps us to stay protected against more than 2000 known toxins, and many other vicious diseases such as colon cancer, rectal cancer, and bladder cancer.
Filtered water isn’t just limited to your drinking water, but should be used for all the various activities you do with water, such as brushing, bathing, cooking, drinking, and more. Using filtered water helps in bringing a significant improvement to your overall well being.
The Working of a Water Purification Filter
How do you make a water purification filter? First, it is important for you to know about the working of a water purification filter. So, let us go ahead and answer the question of how a water filter works.
Water has an unusual molecular structure because of which it has the tendency to dissolve almost all kinds of particles in it. The more dirt particles that the water has accumulated, the more contaminated it becomes.
To remove the dust particles from the water, there are usually two techniques used by a filter:physical filtration and chemical filtration.
In the case of a physical filter, a membrane is fitted inside an object and the water is allowed to pass through it which captures all the dirt particles in it. The unwanted particles are then removed from the filter and clean water can be used. For example, to remove excessive limescale, a similar filter is used in electric cattle.
In the case of a chemical filter, water is passed through an active chemical material and substances to remove the impurities from the water.
Several Benefits of Water Filtration System
Using a water filter at your home can be highly beneficial for you and your family. Some of the major benefits of using a water purification filter are:
Most people use tap water as the basic source of drinking water at their homes. Tap water may consist of metallic particles such as mercury, copper, lead, arsenic, etc. When these particles enter the human body, they affect the immune system and become responsible for severe health problems.
This is the basic reason for the birth of filter systems to make water free from such particles. So, a filter system ensures the purity of water entering your body and better health for you.
Although the taste of water is not the most important thing to worry about in a purification filter, a good taste adds to the advantages of consuming clean water. You might have noticed when you drink some water that has been lying around for two or three days, there is a little uncertainty in the taste of water.
Similarly, drinking from a water filter will help you to be more aware of the taste of your water. You immediately can figure out by tasting a sip of water if the water is good for you or not.
The bottled water industry is among the top industries to produce synthetic pollutants in the world. When you choose filtered water, the need to use plastic water for drinking water decreases to a great extent, which in return is better for our environment.
Better Conditioning of the Skin
The water purification filter produces water that is free from various chemicals like chlorine and others. When this chlorine-free water is used for several activities, such as bathing and brushing, the water becomes more suitable for our skin.
It makes our skin gentler and reduces the risk of any kind of infection. There are certain filters that even decrease the limescale of water and are a huge benefit for people living in areas having hard water.
Helpful in Case of Emergencies
There are several times when the sources through which the water is coming to your tap gets infected due to some reason like the excavation of land, mining, death of a particular animal, etc. In such a case, having a water purification system can be of great advantage to people for providing safe and pure water.
Various Methods of Water Filtration
There are a plethora of filtration methods that can be used to generate bacteria-free water. Some of these methods are given down below.
This is one of the oldest methods of water purification. In this process, the water is heated at a very high temperature so that the vaporization process can take place. Once the vaporization occurs, the vapors are condensed to bring them back to liquid form. The process of distillation helps in removing chemicals, microorganisms, and minerals from the water.
The ion exchange technology is used to replace the harmful ions present in the water with the ions that are less harmful. As the process can replace magnesium and calcium with sodium, it is often used as a water softener in many areas.
This is a process in which the water is purified by carbon particles chemically bonding with the water. Some carbons work on purifying the water by decreasing the level of chlorine which makes the taste and odor of water better, while others help in removing the harmful particles from the water.
There are several electrically charged ions and salts present in the water. Deionization helps in promoting ion exchange so that these salts and charged ions present can be removed from the water. In case there are some neutral particles present, they will also get removed with this process. However, microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses are not removed by this filtration method.
The process of reverse osmosis is generally based on moving the water through a semi-permeable membrane so that large harmful molecules can be saved from entering the water. The limitation of this process is that it can only work with those substances that are much bigger in size than that of water.
So, substances like chlorine are not able to get filtered with this technique. Though they take many more impurities out of water compared to the carbon filter. So they are mostly suggested for domestic uses.
These are specially designed block-shaped filters that consist of crushed carbon particles in them. As they cover a large surface area, they are much more effective than any other carbon filter. The impact of a carbon filter can be analyzed by the rate at which the water flows. The most sediment holding capacity and efficiency is of Fibredyne carbon block filters.
Although the water purification filters that are mechanical cannot remove chemical impurities from water, they work excellently in removing cysts and sediments from water. There are small holes present in the filter that help in filtering unwanted materials. The mechanical filter is highly advised to people who consume water that has several dirt particles present in them.
Granulated carbon filters make use of grains of carbon to purify the water. Due to the smaller surface area of the carbon particles, it is less effective than that of block-shaped carbons. Like the other carbon filters, their effectiveness is highly influenced by the speed of the water.
Ozone is a powerful technology that can kill a large number of microorganisms. Though ozone filters are not efficient in removing chemicals, they are quite powerful in clearing the other impurities of the water.
Softeners make use of ion exchange technology for the reduction of calcium and magnesium in water. This technique is mostly used when there is excessive accumulation of minerals in your water. The water in this technique is purified using sodium, resulting in purified water that usually consists of more sodium particles. It is not advised to use this water to give it to plants due to the high level of sodium.
Various Kinds of Water Filters
Some of the most common types of filters used in the purification process are:
They make use of carbon filters to remove unwanted impurities from the filter that helps in improving the odor and taste of the water. These types of filters are usually less costly and can fit in any type of refrigerator.
These types of filters are directly connected to a faucet and are usually placed on the counters. There is a switch present to shift from filtered to unfiltered water. They take the least amount of time to purify the water.
Under-sink filters are directly attached to the waterline of your house and are present beneath the sink. They help in purifying the water, and the best advantage of them is that they are placed out of your sight.
These filters get directly connected with your tap through a faucet and help the water to get purified. The water can be used for cooking and drinking purposes. These kinds of filters are easy to install and are good for home-usage.
How to Make a Water Purification Filter
There are several reasons to create a water filter system for yourself. The primary reason why people wish to create their own water filters is that it ensures a better quality, as all the components are attached by you. Also, the cost of making the filter gets decreased by a significant amount when you yourself create a water filtration system at your home.
Also, if you know how to create a filter system, it can be used for multiple purposes. You will have an idea of the components of your filter system, and any small technical can be solved by you alone. Also, creating a water filter to use while you trek in the jungles or mountains can be beneficial for you to drink safe water from unhygienic sources.
So, to start building your own water purification filter, you might need some of the given below components.
A bio filter consists of three different layers of sand, gravel and activated charcoal. This is a simplistic approach in which the big particles get filtered due to the presence of small particles at the bottom. When water is allowed to pass through it, the water gets purified.
To create a bio filter yourself, you may need the list of following things:
- Hole Saw
- Activated Charcoal
- Plastic Fittings
- Five food-grade five-gallon bucket
Here are the instructions:
1. Firstly, a gallon container is taken and put upside down. A hole is cut at the center of the top of the container so that you can pour in the material. A layer of gravel is inserted into the container that ensures freedom from animals and other debris.
2. Then, a layer of sand is put inside the container that will filter out the contaminants that were left unfiltered from the first layer.
3. Then, a layer of activated charcoal is inserted inside the container that plays its part by removing the pathogens and chemicals that are still inside the water molecules. The water is then safe to drink.
To convert it into a full carbon filter, you can add in another layer of block carbon materials inside it.
The process of distillation is most required when you have a little infant at your home. To provide them with clean, pure freshwater, your best bet is to process the water through a distillation process. This helps in removing the impurities of the water and the water becomes safe for drinking and does not affect the immune system of the infant.
To distill the water, take a pan and pour it with 2-3 glasses full of water. Bring it to a boiling temperature and then condense for a few minutes. When the water becomes cold enough to drink, you can consume it.
Improvised Charcoal Filter
The process of building a charcoal filter is not that different from that of a bio filter. The one major difference in both processes is that in the bio filter, a layer of gravel is used, whereas in a charcoal filter, no gravel is used.
To build a bio filter, you might need:
- Piece of cloth
- 2-Liter plastic bottles
The process goes as follows:
- Similarly to a bio filter, we take a container, flip it over, and cut a hole at the center of the top of the container. Then a layer of charcoal is inserted into the container.
- Once done, a new layer of sand is poured over the charcoal. Since the method is for central purification, make sure to insert the carbon blocks in the right fashion so that there remains some space for the water to pass through it. The water that you will obtain from this filter will be cloudy in texture, so it should be boiled before you drink the water.
- Most people do not pay attention to the boiling process in the right way. As soon as the water boils, they turn off the heat and allow the water to get cool. This is not an appropriate way to do it. When the water comes to a boil, remember to heat it up for at least 3 minutes before turning off the heat. It will ensure the water is infection-free and is safe to drink.
Solar Water Disinfection
This method is also known as the SODIS (or Solar Disinfection) method. The big problem with this type of water filter is that it can take huge amounts of time to get filtered. The basic process of this technique is that the water is kept under the solar glare of the sun, which helps in killing the impurities present in the water.
To purify the water using this technique, firstly acquire a lot of open headed containers and find a location where plenty of direct sunlight is flowing in. To make the water infection-free from microorganisms, add a thin layer screen over the container.
If the water is clear and bright, then it takes about two years for the water to get filtered using the ozone radiation. If the water is looking cloudy, you can keep it for at least 2 days as it is. Note that this way doesn’t ensure a hundred percent purification of the water, but the amount of purification it does is still justifiable.
You can also combine two methods together for the process of purification. Just complete the first purification method and then allow the water to pass through another filter. This will ensure the maximum amount of purification for your water.
Drinking pure water is an essential need for every human being so that our immune system can remain strong and act strong against all kinds of impurities. Also, drinking filtered water gives huge benefits to our overall well being. So, make sure that your friends and family stay safe by drinking water that is filtered and purified.
Now you understand how to make a water purification filter. So next time, when you are off with your friends to trekking, share with them some of your knowledge of making a water purification for yourself. Good luck!