#1 Do Catholics Pray to Mary?
Yes, Catholics do revere Mary in a sacred way, and they do pray to her as the Virgin, mother of Jesus Christ. Separate from God, Mary is not at the level of Christ or God, but she still receives a considerable amount of respect and reverence in the Catholic community.
With prayers dedicated to her since the 3rd and 4th centuries, the Sub Tuum Praesidium is the oldest recorded prayer to the Virgin Mary. Referring to her as the ‘Mother of God,’ Catholics find Jesus to be synonymous with the Father in many capacities, utilizing the blanket statement of ‘God’ to refer to both the Father and the Son.
As Mary is considered the mother of life, her original prayers were found in Greek papyrus, C. 300 A.D. The oldest discovered statue of Mary was found in the Priscilla catacombs of Rome, dating again back to 3rd century.
With these early links to the home of Catholicism, Rome and Italy as a whole have embraced Mary with the following connotations alluded to her in prayer – she is:
- A holy virgin representing purity
- A powerful intermediary with God
- The protector from all danger
- A refuge for the sinners
- A representation of being sinless – utilized through a ‘Hail Mary,’ in which Roman Catholics recite three Hail Marys as a statement of their purity.
A Hail Mary prayer goes as follows:
“Hail Mary, Full of Grace, The Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners now, and at the hour of death. Glory Be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.”
Although they do not worship Mary (as this could be considered idolatry to some), Catholics generally honor Mary as the sacred womb that gifted God to humankind in his human form.
Catholics also recognize that Mary had a certain degree of authority over Jesus, even telling him to produce more wine in John 2, and he performs the miracle of turning water to wine. This is a persuasive example of her influence over Jesus as he blatantly acknowledges that he was not supposed to demonstrate his powers this early-on, saying it is “not my time.” Nonetheless, he does what Mary asks anyway.
- “And Mary said, “My soul magnifies the Lord,” – Luke 1:46.
- “As he said these things, a woman in the crowd raised her voice and said to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts at which you nursed!” But he said, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and keep it!” – Luke 11:27-28.
- Do Catholics Worship Mary? – Complete Christianity; Published May 20th, 2019.
#2 Do Catholics Celebrate Easter?
Yes, Catholics celebrate Easter.
Not only do they celebrate Easter, but even consider it to be one of the holiest days of the year as it represents the resurrection of Jesus Christ. After he has risen from the dead, Scriptures write that he has conquered death and overcome sin.
A Catholic program President, Claudia Stevens, of Nova Southeastern University writes:
“Jesus’ resurrection during Easter, not only renews our faith, but also gives us peace, restores our souls, mends our brokenness and helps us to conquer our struggles, especially when we are overwhelmed.”
The forty days leading up to Easter is practiced as Lent, a period of sacrifice that mimics that martyrdom of Christ during the time of his great sacrifice. Although Easter can be a solemn time, it is also a ritual commemorated by meals with family, singing, dancing, painting eggs, and an Easter church service.
The date of Easter fluctuates, as explained by Oregon University’s Theology Department:
“Easter is celebrated by western Christianity and Catholicism according to the lunisolar patterns on the Gregorian calendar. The moveable date for Easter was established in 325CE by the First Council of Nicaea to be on the first Sunday after the full moon following the March equinox.”
Regardless of the day and service time, the meaning of Easter remains the same. To reference Philippians 3:10:
“That I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and may share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death.”
- “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! According to his great mercy, he has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead” – 1 Peter 1:3.
- “Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, and everyone who lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe this?”’ – John 11:25-26.
- Catholic.org – Easter and Lent; Published April 2020. “As we know from the Gospels, Jesus Christ rose from the dead on the third day following his crucifixion, which would be Sunday. His resurrection marks the triumph of good over evil, sin and death. It is the singular event which proves that those who trust in God and accept Christ will be raised from the dead.”
#3 Do Catholics Believe in Birth Control?
Traditionally, the use of contraception in the Catholic Church is considered ‘intrinsically evil.’ This is the teaching perpetuated by the leadership and bishops within the religion, but it has also been a hot topic for debate in the broader scope of Christianity.
On New Year’s Eve of 1930, ‘the Roman Catholic Church officially banned any “artificial” means of birth control. Condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps were defined as artificial since they blocked the natural journey of sperm during intercourse.”
Despite this explicit moral regulation, many Catholics still used forms of birth control. There are plenty of Catholics that follow the Church’s rules, avoiding all ‘unnatural’ forms of birth control, but in the last 90 years, this ban this has faced scrutiny and been challenged by many as requiring a revised judgment. The Wallstreet Journal writes:
“After 50 years, a pope’s birth control message still divides Catholics.”
In 2018 they wrote, “the pope reaffirmed the church’s acceptance of birth control through abstinence from sex during a woman’s fertile period.”’
Chastity is considered the highest state, but there is a divide on this due to children also being considered gifts from God. With an evolving approach to contraception, the Catholic Church and its members have swayed substantially on these traditional views. Catholicsforchoice.org writes:
“While it has been widely reported that 98 percent of sexually active Catholic women use a method of contraception banned by the U.S. bishops, and that the bishops represent the views of very few people.”
In PewResearch.org’s 2015study titled What’s a Sin? Catholics Don’t Always Agree with Their Church; they studied how United States Catholics felt about contraception, finding:
- 17% believed it was not sinful behavior
- 66% believed it was sinful behavior
- “Behold, children are a heritage from the Lord, the fruit of the womb a reward.” – Psalm 127:3.
- “And God blessed them. And God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.”’ – Genesis 1:28.
- The Catholic Church Wasn’t Always So Against Contraception – Business Insider; Published July 14th, 2018.
#4 Do Catholics Read the Bible?
Yes, Catholics read the Holy Bible, but some Catholics also choose never to read the Bible. Both are common, and there is a blatant split in the Catholic Church that is driven by hundreds of years of historical influence.
The Catholic Church ultimately believes that humanity’s highest approach to life and revelations should be guided by biblical Scripture and the Holy Spirit.
In spite of this, there is a powerful historical context of the denomination’s journey to find a universal text. The Huffington Post writes in their piece Why Christians Were Denied Access to Their Bible for 1,000 Years:
“The Council of Nicaea called by the Emperor Constantine met in 325 C.E. to establish a unified Catholic Church. The Church actually discouraged the populace from reading the Bible on their own — a policy that intensified through the Middle Ages and later, with the addition of a prohibition forbidding translation of the Bible into native languages.”
Many argue with the Catholic interpretation of the Bible, with Protestant Christians often finding the Catholic traditions to be extreme. Others say that Catholics follow the Bible with a breed of ‘blind faith,’ that many find to be dismissive of rational thinking and science.
Ultimately, group readings of the Bible are a relatively new occurrence in the Catholic denomination, and it is considered novel to engage scripture.
The Organization of United States Conference of Catholic Bishops follows up on the ever-changing attitudes of Catholics towards the Bible, adding:
“Scripture awareness grew after the Second Vatican Council. Mass was celebrated in the vernacular and so the Scripture readings at Mass were read entirely in English. Adult faith formation programs began to develop, and the most common program run at a parish focused on Scripture study. The Charismatic movement and the rise of prayer groups exposed Catholics to Scripture even more. All of this contributed to Catholics becoming more familiar with the Bible and more interested in reading the Scriptures and praying with them.
In a round-about way, aspects of U.S. culture also have encouraged Catholics to become more familiar with the Scriptures. References to John 3:16 appear in the stands at sporting events. Catholics who hear of and see other Christians quote or cite Scripture verses wonder why they cannot. Such experiences lead Catholics to seek familiarity with the Bible.”
- “For the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing to the division of soul and of spirit, of joints and of marrow, and discerning the thoughts and intentions of the heart.” – Hebrews 4:12.
- “But he answered, “It is written, “‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.’” – Matthew 4:4
- Why Don’t Catholics Read the Bible? – uCatholic; Published July 16th, 2018. “The perception among many Christians is that Catholics don’t read or know the Bible. But is that true?”
#5 Do Catholics Believe in Reincarnation?
No, Catholics do not believe in Reincarnation, believing that the concept is incompatible and contradictory to their Christian-outlook on the afterlife. In contrast, Catholics favor the belief in the resurrection, not Reincarnation.
The religions that are most prominently associated with Reincarnation are:
As a traditionally Eastern-Asian concept that is commonly seen in Indian-based religions, Reincarnation is not explicitly referred to in the Christian Bible, and therefore, is not recognized as a viable option for what occurs after death.
This is affirmed in the Christian-eye by scriptural evidence such as Job 14:10-12:
“But a man dies and is laid low; man breathes his last, and where is he? As waters fail from a lake and a river wastes away and dries up, so a man lies down and rises not again; till the heavens are no more he will not awake or be roused out of his sleep.”
- “And just as it is appointed for man to die once, and after that comes judgment,” – Hebrews 9:27.
- “But now he is dead. Why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not return to me.” – 2 Samuel 12:23
- What Does the Church Teach About Reincarnation – Catholic Answers; Published September 12th, 2017.
#6 Do Catholics Believe in God?
Yes, Catholics center their entire faith and the religion’s foundation around the holy power and dominion of the one true God. The Nicene Creed, a vital prayer and statement in the Catholic denomination, states:
“I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible.”
Biblically, Isaiah 40:28 states:
“Have you not known? Have you not heard? The Lord is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary; his understanding is unsearchable.”
- “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.” – Revelation 1:8.
- “It is he who made the earth by his power, who established the world by his wisdom, and by his understanding stretched out the heavens.” – Jeremiah 51:15.
- “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.” – John 3:16.
- SaintMaryHarsville.org – What Do Catholics Believe? Published October 10th, 2019.
#7 Do Catholics Believe in The Trinity?
Yes, Catholics believe in the equal power of God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit – the trio of sacred entities that accumulate as a totality of God, known as the Trinity.It is not that they believe in three separate Gods, it is that Catholics believe in a single God, divided into three essences of himself.
The United States Conference of Catholic Bishopsdescribes:
“I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son, who with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified, who has spoken through the prophets.”
- “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,” – Matthew 28:19.
- “But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.” – John 14:26.
- “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.” – 2 Corinthians 13:14.
- The Blessed Trinity – What We Catholics Believe – Classic Catholic Audiobooks; Published December 28th, 2017.
#8 Do Catholics Believe in Predestination?
Yes, Catholics believe in the concept of predestination but not the Calvinistic theory of double predestination. As Catholics were the original preachers and supporters of Predestination – It is, in itself, a Catholic concept. Despite this history, Catholics do not mention predestination much in modern theology, often associating it with Calvinism.
There is a great deal of scriptural mention of predestination, and God having a plan for the creation of mankind. Romans 8:28-30 says:
“And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose. For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. And those whom he predestined he also called, and those whom he called he also justified, and those whom he justified he also glorified.”
There is a significant debate regarding predestination, and Christians of all denominations are seen disputing its validity against the emphasis of free will. Catholic.com on predestination writes:
“The Catholic Church permits a range of views on the subject of predestination, but there are certain points on which it is firm: “God predestines no one to go to hell; for this, a willful turning away from God (a mortal sin) is necessary, and persistence in it until the end” (CCC 1037). It also rejects the idea of unconditional election, stating that when God “establishes his eternal plan of ‘predestination,’ he includes in it each person’s free response to his grace” (CCC 600).”
Vatican.va adds under ‘Christ’s Redemptive Death in God’s Plan of Salvation:
“To God, all moments of time are present in their immediacy. When therefore he establishes his eternal plan of “predestination”, he includes in it each person’s free response to his grace: “In this city, in fact, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed, to do whatever your hand and your plan had predestined to take place.” For the sake of accomplishing his plan of salvation, God permitted the acts that flowed from their blindness.”
This statement from the Vatican affirms that they do indeed believe in predestination, but this faith includes a caveat that God offers humanity the freedom of will.
The general beliefs surrounding predestination in the Catholic Church include but are not limited to:
- Sin is permitted by God, but not predestined by God.
- God is the origin of all good and he does not create evil.
- God can see the past, present, and future.
- God wills that all can be saved, he wishes for this and wants this.
- God gives humans free will, which can result in sinful choices and a rejection of God’s grace.
- “He predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will,” – Ephesians 1:5.
- “And when the Gentiles heard this, they began rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord, and as many as were appointed to eternal life believed.” – Acts 13:48.
- “In him we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to the purpose of him who works all things according to the counsel of his will, so that we who were the first to hope in Christ might be to the praise of his glory.” – Ephesians 1:11-12.
- Do Catholics Believe in Predestination – Catholic Answers; Published March 23rd, 2017.
#9 Do Catholics Baptize?
Yes, essentially, all Christian denominations believe in the sacred ceremony of baptisms.
Considered a rebirth into that religion, there are some differing opinions on how many times a person can be baptized, with some avoiding infant baptisms for this reasons. Catholics, on the other hand, frequently baptize infants and choose to do so on the eighth day of their life, freeing them from any sin by which they were born with.
It is said that all men and women are born with sin, and only a holy baptism performed by an ordained church leader with a sacred connection to God – can wash away one’s sin.
The Vatican.va sacrament scriptures assert:
“Holy Baptism is the basis of the whole Christian life, the gateway to life in the Spirit (vitae spiritualis ianua),4 and the door which gives access to the other sacraments. Through Baptism we are freed from sin and reborn as sons of God; we become members of Christ, are incorporated into the Church and made sharers in her mission: “Baptism is the sacrament of regeneration through water in the word.”
Catholics baptize all participants, ‘in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.’
1 Peter 3:21 states:
“Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.”
Considered to be the only way to enter Heaven, John 3:5affirms this:
“Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.”
- “And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.” – Acts 2:38.
- Why Does the Catholic Church Baptize Babies? – uCatholic; Published November 21st, 2018.
#10 Do Catholics Believe in Divorce?
Yes, Catholics do allow divorce but do not encourage it. Even the Pope has admitted in recent years that sometimes ‘separation is inevitable,’ but this is seen as a last resort and final option.
Pewresearch.org found that the U.S. Catholic opinions range between the following perspectives:
- 45% believe divorce is not a moral issue
- 32% believe divorce is acceptable
- 19% believe divorce is wrong
- 5% believe divorce depends on circumstance
With roughly 1 in 5 Catholics feeling that divorce is undoubtably wrong, most would describe that marriage is for life, a holy union before God that is meant to be respected for the weight of its vows – ‘Til death do us part.’
Despite this, 77% of Catholics in America either feel that divorce is acceptable or not an issue. That is nearly 3/4ths of the entire American following that do not find issue with separation. Due to this, one could argue a more progressive and Americanized outlook has evolved as related to the issue.
It is important to note that the Church will not excommunicate you for divorce; however, they can do so if you choose to remarry before the original marriage has been nullified. Some believe that even if a civil divorce is agreed upon and two choose to divorce in the eyes of the government, they are still married ‘in the eyes of God.’
Church leaders would refer to a literal translation of scriptures such as Luke 16:18:
“Everyone who divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery, and he who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery.”
The official website of Catholicism, Vatican.va, advisers unequivocally state that the guidelines surrounding divorce are:
“[Marriage in the Teachings of Jesus]. Faced with the practice of repudiation (Dt 22:19, 29; 24:1-4), Jesus reiterates God’s original plan: “What God has joined together, no man must separate” (Mk 10:9 and Mt 19:6; cf. Gen 2:24; 1 Cor 6:16), clarifying that divorce was a concession due to hardness of heart (Mk 10:5 and Mt 19:8). Throughout history, the interpretation of the Matthean clause has been very controversial: “Whoever repudiates his wife, not by illegitimate unions (πορνεία), and marries another, commits adultery” (Mt 19:9; cf. 5:32). After innumerable discussions, no consensus has been reached either on the porneia or on the precise consequences it would have. The Latin Tradition has always excluded the possibility of a second union for this reason, subsequent to a valid first union (cf. Mk 10:10-11), which is consistent with the perplexity of the disciples according to the text of Matthew (Mt 19:10).”
- “To the married I give this charge (not I, but the Lord): the wife should not separate from her husband (but if she does, she should remain unmarried or else be reconciled to her husband), and the husband should not divorce his wife.” – 1 Corinthians 7:10-11.
- “But if the unbelieving partner separates, let it be so. In such cases the brother or sister is not enslaved. God has called you to peace.” – 1 Corinthians 7:15.
- “And I say to you: whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery.” – Matthew 19:9.
- Pope Reforms Catholic Church’s Marriage Annulment Process – The Guardian; Published September 8th, 2015.
#11 Are Catholics Circumcised?
With a relatively neutral position on circumcision, Catholics are split on this issue. Officially, the Catholic Church does not support circumcisions, considering it mutilation. But this does not mean that disciples of the religion never circumcise their male children, because they commonly do.
Although circumcision is the most common surgical operation performed on males in the United States, there is a long-standing debate concerning the ethical and practical appropriateness of circumcision. Circumcision is not considered a requirement in the New Testament, but Jesus himself was circumcised (Luke 2:21).
“The Catechism of the Catholic Church teaches that amputations and mutilations performed on innocent people without strictly therapeutic reasons are against the moral law.”
Ultimately, most Roman Catholics would likely not circumcise their Son, considering it morally wrong. However, American Catholics would be much more likely to circumcise their Son, simply because it is more commonly practiced in the United States than in Europe.
Referencing this data from Researchgate.net, circumcision is –
Most common in:
- North America
- Parts of Southwest Asia
Least common in:
- Mexico/along the Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean
- South America
The official website of The Catholic Church expresses:
“The baptism of infants has been attested since ancient times. It is justified in the desire of parents that their children participate in sacramental grace, be incorporated into Christ and the Church, become members of the community of God’s children as they are of the family, for baptism is an effective means of salvation, forgiving sins, beginning with original sin, and transmitting grace.
The child does not knowingly sign his or her membership in his or her natural family, nor is he or she proud of it, as is often the case with many initiation rites, such as circumcision in the Jewish faith. If socialization follows its ordinary course, it will do so as a young and adult, with gratitude. With the baptism of infants, it is emphasized that the faith in which we are baptized is the ecclesial faith, that our growth in faith takes place thanks to the insertion in the community “we.” The celebration confirms it solemnly after the profession of faith: “This is our faith; this is the faith of the Church that we are proud to profess.” On this occasion, the parents act as representatives of the Church, which welcomes these children into its bosom. For this reason, the baptism of children is justified from the responsibility of educating in the faith that the parents and godparents contract, parallel to the responsibility of educating them in the rest of the spheres of life.”
With Vatican.va only referring to it as a Jewish concept, Catholicism.org expands on this by reiterating that circumcision is morally wrong:
“What is done in American hospitals is not what was done to Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob. Aside from its not having the same spiritual significance, it is not the same physical operation. In the modern practice, much more perfectly healthy tissue is amputated.
The alleged health benefits that accrue to the victim of this barbarity have been debunked. But even if sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS were actually statistically lowered by infant circumcision, there are other ways of preventing those diseases — most notably living a virtuous life.”
- “For neither circumcision counts for anything nor uncircumcision, but keeping the commandments of God.” – 1 Corinthians 7:19.
- “Circumcise yourselves to the Lord; remove the foreskin of your hearts, O men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem; lest my wrath go forth like fire, and burn with none to quench it, because of the evil of your deeds.” – Jeremiah 4:4.
- Circumcision for Christians – EWTN; Published June 26th, 2018.
#12 Are Catholics Allowed to Be Cremated?
Yes, Catholics have only recently been allowed to be cremated. Nonetheless, Pope-driven policies still surround the choice. In October of 2016, CNN wrote:
“The Vatican announced Tuesday that Catholics may be cremated but should not have their ashes scattered at sea or kept in urns at home. According to new guidelines from the Vatican’s doctrinal office, cremated remains should be kept in a “sacred place” such as a church cemetery.”
CremationResource.org expands upon the traditional outlook of Catholic cremation:
“Catholics do not favor cremation because they believe in the resurrection of the body after death. They follow the custom of burying the dead, as Jesus Christ was buried in a tomb.”
Concerned about not being able to be easily resurrected, most Catholics do not participate in cremation.
Cremation rates have significantly risen from 1960 to increased projections of 2035 that anticipate a continuation of this surge:
Due to its affordability and approval by the Pope, we can assumably expect to see more Catholic cremations in the future.
- “By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.” – Genesis 3:19.
- “If I give away all I have, and if I deliver up my body to be burned, but have not love, I gain nothing.” – 1 Corinthians 13:3.
- Can Catholics Be Cremated? The Vatican Rules in 2019 – Cremation Institute. “Many people are unsure about the views of the Catholic Church concerning the topic of cremation. So you’re probably wondering, can Catholics be cremated? The simple answer is yes, but there are rules you need to follow.” The Correct Way to Cremate – The accepted method of the Catholic Church for disposing of the ashes is as follows:
- The remains should be treated with reverence at all times, including when being handled or transported.
- The ashes should be placed in an urn or other proper container.
- A stand or table is prepared in the place that is normally occupied by the casket.
- The vessel in which the remains are contained can be carried to the prepared place during the entrance procession or it can be placed there before the beginning of the liturgy.
- The Catholic funeral rites which consist of the vigil and the funeral Mass (if it is the judgement of the diocesan bishop) are performed.
- The body is cremated either before or after the ceremony, depending on each situation.
- The burial takes place in a sacred location such as a cemetery, mausoleum, or crypt.
- Rite of Committal is celebrated at the burial site.
- A gravestone or memorial plaque should be placed at the burial site to record the memory of the deceased.
#13 Are Catholics Born Again?
Yes, Catholics intrinsically believe in a spiritual rebirth due to their Christian compliance with the tradition of baptisms, seen as a rebirth without sin.
BiblicalChurchEvangelicalism.org found that:
- 90% believe that Catholics can be born again
- 5% do not believe that Catholics can be born again
- 5% are unsure
Being that they are baptized, many would argue ‘yes, they are born again.’ CatholicEducation.org follows up on this viewpoint:
“Both Protestants and Catholics agree that to be “saved” [i.e. to be able to enter Heaven], a person must be “born again.” The difference lies in how Catholics and Protestants believe a person is actually “born again.”
· “Since you have been born again, not of perishable seed but of imperishable, through the living and abiding word of God;” – 1 Peter 1:23.
- Are Catholics Born Again? YES! – Catholic Truth; Published December 12th, 2019.
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